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BAJRA
Question What is the cost of cultivation, crop protection, cost of harvesting & threshing and sale returns of the harvest. In brief, what is the net cost of cultivation in comparison to the net returns in the local rural Market?
 

Cost of Cultivation per Acre

Sale of Produce per Acr

    i.   Land preparation :         Rs 500.0

    ii.  Seed :                          Rs 250.0

    iii. Manure & fertilizer :        Rs 1500.0

    iv.  Weeding & hoeing :        Rs 750.0

    v.   Plant protection  :           Generally Nil

    vi.  Harvesting & threshing:   Rs 500.0

 

   i.  Grain   :  Rs 12000.0

       (15 qtls/acre @ Rs 800/qtl)

   ii. Fodder : Rs 7500.0

       (30 qtls/acre @ Rs 250/qtl)

 

 

                        Total                       Rs 3500.0

       Total     Rs 19,500.0

So under normal conditions of Bajra cultivation a farmer can get a net saving of Rs 16000.0 from one acre. In the case of NBIL’s Big B, average yield of 13-15 q/acre has been recorded over the last two years.


Question What are the main areas of Bajra cultivation in our country and why?
 

The main areas are :

Kharif : Rajasthan, Maharashtra, Western UP, Gujarat, Haryana, Andhra Pradesh, MP, Karnataka and Tamilnadu.

Summer : Gujarat, Western UP and Maharashtra

In these areas (tropical/sub-tropical) climatic conditions favor Bajra cultivation. The Kharif areas mentioned above offer high temperature, less sub-soil  water & light to medium soils. Bajra fits in the Summer season (in the above mentioned areas) because of the short duration maturity, so the subsequent Kharif crop sowing is not affected.


Question What are the main Nath Products in Bajra? What are their specific features and recommended areas for cultivation?
 

Currently, we are selling 4 Bajra hybrids  NBH-1188 (Big B), NBH-1717, NBH-05 and Eknath-301 (Bristled).

Hybrids

Specific Features

Recommended areas

NBH-1188 (Big B)

Tall (240-270 cm height); Non lodging; stay green; long highly compact ear heads; attractive shiny medium sized gray grains; high grain & fodder yield and resistance to DM & other diseases.

Light sandy-loam soils of Rajasthan, Western UP and Haryana.

NBH-1717

Medium height (180-210 cm); Non lodging; stay green; high tillering; long highly compact ear heads; medium size gray grains; high grain & fodder yield; Tolerant to DM & other major diseases.

Medium to heavy soils of Rajasthan, Haryana, Western UP, Maharashtra (in Kharif) and Gujarat, Maharashtra & Western UP (in Summer).

NBH-05

Medium height (180-200 cm); Non lodging; stay green; high tillering; long highly compact ear heads; medium size gray grains; high grain & fodder yield; Tolerant to DM & other major diseases.

Medium to heavy soils of Rajasthan, Haryana, Western UP, Maharashtra & Gujarat (in Kharif) and Gujarat, Maharashtra & Western UP (in Summer).

Eknath-301 (Bristled)

Medium height (170-180 cm); Non lodging; high tillering; stay green; thin long highly compact bristled ear heads; good grain & fodder yield; tolerant to major diseases.

All the Bajra growing areas where bird problem is serious.


Question What are the common pests and diseases and how to control them?
 

Pests- The Major pests of Bajra are :

                    i. Grass hopper & Locusts : These pests cause a serious problem in western Rajasthan

                       and adjoining Gujarat. They eat all the fleshy portion of the leaves. These are

                       controlled by parathion dust @ 50 kg per ha.  

                   ii. Hairy caterpillar : These pests are seen at the time of dough stage under conditions

                       of continuous rain for more than 3-4 days. Grains in panicles are eaten by this pest.

                       This caterpillar is controlled by endosulphan @20ml/10 litres of water.

Diseases – The serious diseases in Bajra are :

                   i. Downy mildew- serious both at vegetative as well as reproductive stage, can be

                       controlled by seed treatment of Metalaxyl @2.5 gm/kg seed, foliar spray of Ridomil

                       @ 25 gm per 10 litres of water.

                   ii. Blast : Red round spot on leaves reduce photosynthetic efficiency of the plant. Treat

                        the seeds by any fungicide i.e. Dithane M-45.

                   iii. Rust : Red powder on leaves affecting photosynthetic capacity of the plants. Treat

                        the seeds by Bavistin@ 2gm/kg.

                   iv. Ergot : Black powder in spikelets of panicles at the place of grains with green honey

                        appearance. Treat the seed with Dithane M-45 @ 3gm/kg.

The best way of controlling all the diseases is  to develop disease resistant hybrids.


Question What are the reasons for the lodging problem in Bajra and what precautionary measures should be adopted?
 

The reasons are :

                        i.   Tall plants with weak stem.

                        ii.  Shallow root system.

                        iii. No earthing up of the crop by Dora.

                        iv. High Nitrogen doses. 

                        v.  High wind velocity at dough stage.

The precautionary measures are :

                        i.  Select non lodging type of hybrids/varieties.

                        ii.  Use recommend doses of fertilizer only.

                        iii. Proper earthing-up of the crop by Dora at the right stage is essential.


Question How to control weeds in Bajra?
  Spray Atrazine @ 0.5 kg ai/ha in 500-600 lits of water, as pre-emergence weedicide.

Question Quantity of Bajra seed required for planting an acre and how is Bajra sown?
  For planting one acre Bajra, 1.5 to 2 kg seed is required. The seed should be sown in 45 cm spaced rows at a distance of 8-10 cm, 3-5 cm depth.         

Question What land preparation and fertilizer doses are recommended for Bajra?
 

Land Preparation – One deep ploughing a month before sowing is  good for solarizing the soil (kills harmful insects). Before sowing, two cross harrowing operations prepare a fine seed bed (the seed of Bajra is small and sowing depth is only 3-5 cm). 15-17 Trallies (per ha) of FYM should be spread uniformly and mixed by cultivator in the first harrowing before sowing.

Inorganic Fertilizer – a) Rainfed Areas  : 60N:30P:30K per ha.

                               b) Irrigated Areas : 80N:40P:40K per ha.


Question The Causes for poor seed setting in Bajra ear-heads?
 

Two factors are mainly responsible for poor seed setting in Bajra ear-heads :

A)   Abiotic factors :

a) Moisture stress in soil at the time of flowering

b) High & low temperature – If temperature is more than 38oC and less than 22oC at the time of flowering, then there may be a problem of grain setting.

c) High and low PH of soil also affects grain setting.

 B) Biotic factors :

                             a) Attack of beetles on panicles at the time of flowering (damage the flowers).

                             b) DM at green-ear stage seriously affects grain development.


Question What advantages the bristled hybrids Bajra varieties have over  non-bristled varieties?
  If any area is highly affected by bird damage then bristled hybrids are preferred. Such hybrids have lesser losses in yield than the non bristled hybrids. But in general, bristled hybrids are less yielders than the non-bristled hybrids.

Question What is the criteria for selecting Bajra hybrids?
 

The selection is based on the requirement of the target Segments. The segments may be described as below :

a) Tall Segment– Early maturity (70-75 days), height (200 to 230 cm), high tillering (3-6), non-lodging, stay-green, heat tolerant, DM tolerant, medium/compact ear-heads and medium-size, gray grains.

Preferred areas : Rajasthan, Western UP & Haryana.

b) Medium Segment – Early to medium maturity (70-80 days), medium height (180-210 cm), high tillering (3-6), non-lodging, stay-green, DM tolerant, long thick compact ear-heads, bold light gray grains.

Preferred areas: Eastern Rajasthan, Gujarat, Haryana, Western UP & Maharashtra.

c) Dwarf Segment – Medium maturity (75-80 days), dwarf in height (150-170 cm), medium tillering (2-4), non-lodging, DM tolerant, thick long compact ear-heads, bold and light gray grains.

Preferred areas : Maharashtra, Western UP etc.

d) Bristled Segment – Medium maturity (75-80 days), medium height (180-210cm), high tillering (3-6), non-lodging, DM tolerant, stay-green, thick long compact ear-heads, bold light gray grains.

Preferred Areas : Parts of India where bird problems are serious.

e) Extra-Early Segment – Maturity (65-70 days), Medium to tall height (180-230 cm), good tillering (3-5), stay-green, DM tolerant, Medium compact ear-heads, bold light gray grains.

Specific areas : Western Rajasthan.


Question What type of seed materials are available for different cultivation conditions?
 

Demand for OPs is declining rapidly, whereas the demand for hybrid seeds is growing in popularity and farmer acceptance. More than 30 different Bajra hybrid seeds are available from the Private Sector Seed Companies, some of them are very popular among the farmers. NBIL's Big B, NBH-1717, NBH-05 and Eknath-301 are rapidly gaining recognition & popularity owing to their multiple attributes and consistency of performance.


Question What is the ideal soil type suited to Bajra and what are the appropriate planting seasons in Bajra growing areas?
 

a) Soil : Bajra grows very well on light to medium sandy-loam soils with good aeration and minimal water logging. To some extent Bajra is cultivated on saline soils also.  

 b) Sowing Season :   a) Kharif : North – June 25 to July 15

                                                            Central & South : July 2nd and 3rd week.

                                  b) Summer : Western UP & Gujarat – Feb. 5 to March 5

                                                      MH, AP & KT  :  Jan. 15 to Feb. 10.


Question Why Bajra is called a poor man's crop?
  Bajra can be cultivated on marginal lands with lesser requirements of manure/inorganic Fertilizer and plant protection measures. Bajra is also a short duration crop, providing grain for food, fodder for cattle and dry stalk used in making  huts or  as fire wood for the poor farmers.

Question What are the Major Advantages and Risks of cultivating Bajra?
 

The major advantages are :

          i.   Easily cultivable on light soils where other crops are rather difficult to grow.

          ii.  Requires lesser cost of cultivation.

          iii. Survive well under rain fed conditions.

          iv. Quick return in just about 2.5 months.

The Risks are :

   Bajra crop may be severely affected by Downy Mildew, Blast, Rust & Ergot, damaging the crop up to 60%.


Question Under what specific cropping systems is Bajra suited as a crop of choice?
 

When Bajra is taken up in the Kharif season, the Cropping Systems should be :

Bajra (Kharif) followed by Mustard (Rabi-Summer) and then Bajra again.

Other cropping systems could be :

Bajra→Wheat→Bajra, Bajra→Chickpea→Bajra, etc.

When Bajra is taken up in the Summer season, the cropping system should be :

Bajra→Early Mustard→Bajra, Bajra→Potato→Bajra,  Bajra→Cotton→Bajra, Bajra→Soyabean→Bajra etc.



BRINJAL
Question What is the most serious pest of brinjal?
  The most serious pest of Brinjal is shoot & fruit borer. To control this pest follow the integrated pest management practices.

Question What is the most devastating disease of brinjal?
 

The most devastating disease of Brinjal is Bacterial wilt (BW). To prevent BW, Grow resistant varieties / F1 hybrids and crop rotation with crops other than solanaceous plants. Application of bleaching powder ( 25 kg / ha ) will stop further spread of the disease.


Question What is the optimum fertilizer dose?
 

The optimum fertilizer dose for hybrids is 80:150:120 NPK kg/ha & for OP varieties it is 120:80:150 NPK kg/ha


Question What is the optimum spacing followed in Brinjal?
 

The optimum spacing followed in Brinjal. For hybrids is 90 cm X 60 cm and for open pollinated varieties it is 90 cm X 45 cm


Question What is the optimum seed rate per hectare?
 

The Optimum seed rate for hybrids is 200-250 g/ha and for open pollinated varieties it is 300-350 g/ha


Question What are the important hybrids of brinjal available for cultivation?
 

Hybrids marketed by several Companies are available presently in the market. 

Important hybrids segment wise:

  1. Purple white variegated-spiny: NBH-13
  2. Purple white variegated-non spiny: NBH-03
  3. Purple round big (Bharta): NBH-459 and NBH-272
  4. Purple long: NBH-317
  5. Purple round small: NBH-21
  6. Green Round: NBH-249

Question What are the important seasons for growing Brinjal crop?
 

Brinjal can be grown throughout the year however; there are three important growing seasons viz, June-July, October-November & January-February planting.



CHILLI
Question What is the major pests and diseases of Chilli crop?
  The most important diseases of Chilli are  is Bacterial wilt (BW). To prevent BW, Grow resistant varieties / F1 hybrids and crop rotation with crops other than solanaceous plants. Application of bleaching powder ( 25 kg / ha ) will stop further spread of the disease.

Question Which are the most important diseases and pests on Chilli crop?
  The most important diseases on chilli crop are: Viral (CMV and CVMV Virus) Fungal (Fusarium wilt, Damping off, Powdery mildew) The most important pests on Chilli crop are Thrips and mites

Question Where ever water stagnation is there, chilli plants are wilting. What measures to be taken to avoid this?
  Firstly, land should be prepared in such a way that no water gets stagnated. Proper drainage facility should be given. Wherever water stagnates, remove the excess water and spray 2% urea. Spray 2g/l. COC and 1 g streptocycline to the plants. Apply 30 kg nitrogen and 15 kg potash to the soil.

Question Chilli plants are wilting and drying in patches, what is to be done?       
  Opening drainage channels should ensure proper drainage. The soil should be drenched with Kavach @ 2g/ l. of water.

Question In chilli, flowers and immature fruits turn yellow and drop. Fruit are not straight (C-shape). What is this?
  This is due to gall midge. To control it effectively spray trizophos @ 1.25 ml/ l. of water and after a week spray with chloropyriphos @ 2 ml/ l.of water.

Question In chilli crop, upward leaf curl and downward leaf curl are serious problems. Please suggest effective control measures.
  Excess nitrogen application should be stopped, as it increases leaf curl. Do not use excess carbaryl, acephate and synthetic pyrethroids. While spraying the pesticides lower parts of leaves should be sprayed uniformly. To control upward leaf curl spray Fepronil @ 2 ml/l. of water and for downward leaf curl spray dicophol @ 5 ml/ l. of water.

Question What is the optimum fertilizer dose?
  The optimum fertilizer dose for hybrids is 150: 125: 75

Question What is the optimum spacing followed in Chilli?
  The optimum spacing followed in Chilli is Row to Row -75cm and Plant to Plant – 60cm. 

Question What is the optimum seed rate per hectare?
  The Optimum seed rate for hybrids is 250 g / ha

Question What are the important varieties / hybrids of Chilli available for cultivation?
  Hybrids marketed by several Companies are available presently in the market.  It will be ideal to go through the catalogues or web-sites of such companies to decide the suitable variety/ies.

Question What are the important seasons for growing Chilli Crop?
  Chilli is grown throughout the year however; there are two important growing seasons viz, May - June, August,– September planting.


COTTON
Question Are there any other biotech traits in cotton?
  Yes. Some cotton has been improved to resist herbicide that controls a broad spectrum of weeds.

Question Does Bt cotton provide economic benefits to farmers?
  Definitely because it saves expenditure on bollworm control which otherwise incurred high cost of cultivation.

Question Will insects develop resistance to Bt cotton?
  Yes. But, it can be delayed by adopting appropriate insect resistance management plans, such as planting of refugia surrounding Bt cotton.

Question Are Bt cotton tested for safety?
  Yes. There are no side effects or harmful effects of Bt cotton on other living organisms.

Question Is Bt cotton safe for soil organisms as the cotton plants degrade after harvest?
  Impacts of Bt proteins have been investigated on a wide variety of terrestrial and aquatic invertebrates, including earthworms, collembola, daphnids, insect predators and parasites, spiders and honey bees. Even though test populations were exposed to levels 500 to 1,000 times greater than concentrations measured in the field, in most cases no adverse effects were observed.

Question Can Bt cotton be harmful to desirable insects that feed on cotton pests?
  No. The protein is effective only against the caterpillars of lepidopteran insects (moths). It is not harmful to ladybugs, lacewings, spiders or other arthropods.

Question Is Bt cotton harmful to all insects?
  No. The protein in Bt cotton is effective only against the larval form (caterpillars) of certain moths. Specifically, it targets bollworms and budworms that feed on cotton. Susceptible insects have a receptor in their gut to which the Bt protein attaches. The receptor is not present in mammals, birds, fish and most other forms of insects.

Question Does Bt cotton offer benefits to farmers in developing countries?
  Yes, insect protected cotton is especially important in developing countries where small farmers may have less access to machinery and crop inputs, or must apply pesticides with hand sprayers under difficult conditions. Chinese farmers who used Bt cotton applied 80 percent less insecticide than farmers who planted non-Bt varieties.

Question Is Bt cotton widely planted by farmers?
  cotton was introduced in 2002 in India and within 7-8 years span it covers almost more than 90% area.

Question Why do farmers have to spray at all if Bt cotton controls insects?
  The current variety of insect protected cotton is more than 90 percent effective against the most important cotton pests - cotton bollworms. It is not effective against sucking pests, such as Jassids, Aphids, Whitefly, Thrips etc. If they are present at a high rate, farmers must spray.

Question How does Bt cotton reduce the need for spraying?
  Bt cotton contains a protein taken from a bacterium known as Bacillus thuringiensis or Bt. Bt is a natural insecticide that has been used in spray or powder form for many years, especially by organic farmers. When it is introduced into the cotton plant through biotechnology, insects that feed on the plant quit eating and dies.

Question How does Bt cotton assist farmers?
  Bt cotton allows farmers to spray less without sacrificing insect control, which saves time and money.

Question Is there any special care required for Fusion Bt hybrid cultivation?
  Not really. However, precaution must be taken to sow the right Fusion Bt hybrid under appropriate cultivation practices as follows. Hybrid Name Suitability Express (NCEH-14) Heavy and medium soil with irrigated or protective irrigated cultivation. Arjun-21 (NCEH-21) Light, Medium & Heavy soil; Rainfed cultivation Jagannath-2 (NCEH-34) Medium & Heavy soil; Irrigated cultivation Chitra (NCEH-13) Heavy and medium soil with irrigated or protective irrigated cultivation. Nath Baba (NCEH-3 R) Light, Medium & Heavy soil; Rainfed cultivation Vishwanath (NCEH-2 R) Heavy and medium soil with irrigated or protective irrigated cultivation. Bharti (NCEH-6) Medium & Heavy soil; Irrigated cultivation

Question What are Nath’s Fusion Bt products?
  Zone wise Nath has following Fusion Bt products. North Zone (Punjab, Haryana and Rajasthan): Bharti (NCEH-6), Yuvraj (NCEH-31) and NCEH-26 Central Zone (Maharashtra, Gujarat and Madhya Pradesh): Vishwanath (NCEH-2 R), Nath Baba (NCEH-3 R), Express (NCEH-14), Arjun-21 (NCEH-21), Jagannath-2 (NCEH-34) and Kashinath Bt (H x B) South Zone (Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu): Vishwanath (NCEH-2 R), Nath Baba (NCEH-3 R), Jagannath-2 (NCEH-34), Chitra (NCEH-13) and Kashinath Bt (H x B)

Question What is Lalya and whether Fusion Bt products protect the crop from Lalya?
  is a complex phenomenon. It occurs due to nutritional deficiency, heavy attack of sucking pests, especially Jassids and aging of the crop. As per our experience for last 4-5 years most of the Bt cotton hybrids were seriously damaged due to Lalya. However, Lalya was not found on Fusion Bt hybrids.

Question Why farmer should prefer Fusion Bt?
  The reasons are obvious. Fusion Bt provides enhanced and extended protection to the cotton crop which is the need of Indian circumstances and cotton cultivation. Therefore, it is liked by cotton growers in various states of India.

Question Which GM crops are available in India?
  At present only Bt Cotton is grown commercially in India. Research is being carried out on rice, chickpea, tomato, potato, tobacco, rapeseed, mustard, brinjal, cauliflower, chilli, bell pepper, banana, cabbage, muskmelon, blackgram, coffee, pigeonpea, wheat, citrus fruits and groundnut.

Question What is a GM Crop?
  Genetically Modified (GM) crops are produced by genetic engineering. In these plants a foreign gene is introduced, that is, a gene alien to the plant species. This creates plants that can never be created naturally. For example, fish genes can be introduced into tomatoes or pig genes can be inserted into rice.

Question How Fusion Bt technology different than Bollgard technology?
  Fusion Bt technology has been developed in China and has been brought in India by Nath Biogene (I) Ltd., Aurangabad. It combines the effective characters of two genes together hence the name Fusion Bt. It provided the protection to cotton crop from the attack of three types of bollworms and the attack of Spodoptera commonly called as Tobacco worm / Army worm. The protection provided is for over 140 days which is the longest duration of protection when compared to other technology.

Question What is Bt Cotton?
  Bt Cotton is a genetically modified cotton plant. It contains the Bt gene. The Bt gene is taken from a soil bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis, it triggers production of a poison within the plant that kills the insect pests, bollworms, attacking the plant; the Bt plant in other words, is a pesticide producing plant.


JOWAR
Question Are there any special varieties of Jowar for fodder purposes? Pl. furnish the details.
 

SSG is a fodder Jowar hybrid which is cultivated in fodder Jowar growing area of country. This hybrid has 3-4 cuttings and also has good fodder quality.


Question For last few years the area under Jowar is declining. What could be the reasons for this situation?
 

Following are the reasons for declining the Jowar area-

i. Profitability of competing crops – Low producer prices for Jowar in contrast with price movements in favor of competing crops like Cotton, Groundnut, Soybean, Maize, Sunflower etc.

ii. Lagging productivity levels of Jowar.

iii. Expansion of irrigated area favoring commercial crops for cultivation.

iv. Decline in household consumption demand.

v. Less remunerative price of sorghum than their competing crops.


Question What are the guidelines for harvesting excellent yield from Jowar?
 

The following points should be taken for the excellent yield in Jowar-

i) Select high yielding hybrids.

ii) Proper land selection and preparation.

iii) Proper nutrition.

iv) Proper inter cultivation.

v) Timely control of pests and diseases.


Question What are the common pest and diseases found in India on Jowar? And how to control them?
 

Pests :

a) Shoot fly – damages the growing points in early stages, so resulting in the formation of dead hearts. This pest controlled by the seed treatment by Imidacloprid or application of phorate/carbofuran granules in the growing points.

b) Spotted stem borer – The larva feed on the growing points of the central shoot and creates dead hearts. This will be controlled by the endosulphan spray or carbofuran granules application.

c) Aphid – This is serious on rabi crop. Aphid suck the foliar part of plant and simultaneously also excrete huge honey dews on the leaves. This will be controlled by spraying endosulphan and dimethoate. Other minor pests are Midge, Shoot bud, Ear head bug, Red headed caterpillar, Cut worm and mites.

Diseases – The diseases of Jowar are – Downy mildew, Ergot, Grain mould, Rust, Anthracnose, Zonate leaf spot, Smut and Charcoal rot. Most of these diseases will be controlled by the seed treatment by fungicides (Metalaxyl, Thirum, Captan).


Question What are the by products of Jowar crop?
 

The by product of Jowar crop are starch and ethanol.


Question What land preparation is to done and fertilizer doses are recommended for Jowar?
 

Land Preparation-Before one month of sowing one deep ploughing forgood heat and aeration of soil. 25 to 30 Trali's of FYM per ha should spread uniformly and mix by one harrowing by disc harrowing. Before sowing two cross harrowing by cultivator and all clots should friable, make a fine seed bed for sowing. 

         Fertilizers-  i) For Kharif hybrids 100:60:60 NPK per ha.

                         ii) For Rabi crop – Hybrids- 80:50:50 NPK per ha.

                                                   Varieties - 80:40:40 NPK per ha.


Question What is the criteria for selecting Jowar hybrids?
 

Based on Segments-

         a) Kharif Segment (Seg-I) -  Early to medium maturity (100-110 days), high grain & fodder

                                        yield (dual purpose), better grain quality, high resistance to major disease

                                        and insect pests, tolerance to drought. Area – Kharif sorghum growing area

                                        of country.

         b) Rabi segment (Seg-II) – Early maturity (<100 days), high yielding hybrids for rabi season

                                        with inherent resistant against charcoal rot, shoot fly and moisture stress

                                        along with grain quality better than Maldani and Parbhani Moti varieties.

       c) Forage sorghum (Seg.-III) – Development of multi-cut (3-4 cuts) forage sorghum hybrids of

                                        high fodder yield with good nutritional quality and resistance for multiple

                                        foiliar pests and diseases.


Question What type of soil is ideal for taking Jowar crop and which is the right sowing season for it?
 

Jowar taken on medium to heavy soils i.e Black, Sandy loam to red loam soils.

Sowing Season- Kharif  : June 5 to June 25    Rabi : Sept. 15 to Oct. 15.


Question Under what specific cropping system is Jowar suited as crop of choice?
 

When Jowar is taken up in the Kharif season , the Cropping system should be :

Jowar (Kharif) followed by Chick pea in Rabi then Jowar again.

Other cropping systems could be: Jowar→Wheat→Cotton, Jowar→Mustard→Jowar.


Question What are the main areas of Jowar cultivation in our country and why?
 

The main areas are :

            Kharif : Maharashtra, Karnataka, M P, Rajasthan, Andhra Pradesh and Gujarat.

            Rabi : Maharashtra, Karnataka, Gujarat and Andhra Pradesh.

In these areas (tropical/subtropical) climatic conditions favor Jowar cultivation. The Kharif areas mentioned above offer hot, good sub soil water, loamy to clay soils. Jowar as Rabi crop require less subsoil water, moderate temperature, medium to heavy soils.



MAIZE
Question What are the normal spacing of Maize Hybrids?
   60x25 cm(26000 population) for medium maturity hybrid and 60x20cm.(33000 population) for single cross hybrid.

Question What is the seed rate of NBIL Maize hybrid?
  8-10 Kg. /ac.

Question What is the protection from serious insect pests?
  Stem borer is a serious problem in Maize. 1-2 Spray(15 & 25 DAS) of Endosulfan and in 30-35DAS  Furadon 3G application in leaf whorls will control.

Question What are the protection measures against the common diseases in maize?
  Turcicum leaf blight, Maydis leaf blight and Downy mildew are common , for this Two spray (25 & 45 DAS) of Bavistin to control blight and one spray (35DAS) of Ridomil .

Question What are the Maize Hybrids available with NBIL?
  NBIL HYBRID MATURITY MAIN  FEATURE REMARKS DON 1588 MEDIUM MATURITY(100-105DAYS) SUITABLE FOR RAINFED AS WELL AS IRRIGATED AREAS LONG EAR, ATTRACTIVE ORANGE YELLOW SEMI FLINT GRAIN  BIG BOSS FULL SEASON HIGH INPUT(110-120 DAYS) SUITABLE FOR IRRIGATED HIGH MANAGEMENT SINGLE CROSS, HIGH YIELD (35-40qtl/ac.) NWMH 2002 MEDIUM MATURITY,WHITE GRAIN(100-105 DAYS) SUITABLE IN NORTH IN SPRING AS WELL AS KHARIF WITHSTAND HIGH TEMPERATURE , LONG EAR , CAN GO IN GREEN COB MARKET DOMINATOR 365 EARLY MATURITY(85-90 DAYS)

Question What type of Hybrids are available in Maize?
  Early Maturity, Medium Maturity and Full Season Maturity with high input responsive.

Question Can we use the seed of hybrid second time?
  No, we can not use because the seed looses their heterotic effect which leads to reduction in the yield.

Question When the crop should be harvested?
  For fodder the crop should be harvested at the time of flowering. For grain harvesting of the crop should be done when husk cover gets dried and loose.

Question What are the measures to avoid losses due to termites?
  At the time of last ploughing of the field lindane dust or chloro phyriphos dust should be applied in the soil at the rate of 20-25 kg/ha.

Question What are reasons of low germination in maize?
  There are various reasons for it like low germination percentage of seed, Lack of moisture in the field at the time of sowing, sowing of seed at a high depth and lack of drainage.

Question What is the importance of seed treatment and low it should be done?
  Thiram or captan should be used @ of 2-3 gms/kg of seed for seed treatment which protects the seed from seed borne and soil borne diseases.

Question When maize should be irrigated?
  Normally maize does not need irrigation but if need be irrigation should be done at critical stages of the growth i.e. Young seedlings,knee high stage,at the time of tasseling and grain filling.

Question What are the precautions to be taken at the time of top dressing of nitrogen?
  While top dressing nitrogen, field should be free from weeds, soil should have sufficient moisture and the leaves should be avoided from fertilizer.

Question Why nitrogen is applied in split doses while Phosphorus and Potash is applied at single time?
  Nitrogenerous fertilizer are movable means they are available to the plants immediately after their application, they are volatile once they are dissolved in the water and more over they are also decomposed by the soil bacteria therefore application of nitrogen at intervals saves losses of nitrogen. This dose not holds true with Phosptiatic and Potassic fertilizers and therefore they are not lost. Therefore these are applied as basal dose.

Question When and how the fertilizer should be applied?
  Total quantity of Phosphorus and Potash and one half of the nitrogen should be applied as basal dose at the time of sowing while rest one half dose of nitrogen should be applied in two split doses. One after 30-40 days of sowing and other at the time if tasseling.

Question What quantity of fertilizers and manures should be used?
  For getting the maximum yield 8-10 tons of well rotten FYM or compost should be used at least once in two years. The fertilizer should be applied at the rate of 135-140Kg.N,80 Kg. P2O5 , 80Kg.K2 O & 25 Kg.Zinc/Ha.,on the basis soil test and kind and maturity duration of the crop.

Question What quantity of fertilizers and manures should be used?
  For getting the maximum yield 8-10 tons of well rotten FYM or compost should be used at least once in two years. The fertilizer should be applied at the rate of 135-140Kg.N,80 Kg. P2O5 , 80Kg.K2 O & 25 Kg.Zinc/Ha.,on the basis soil test and kind and maturity duration of the crop.

Question What are the advantages of balanced fertilizer application?
  Use of balanced fertilizer results in good growth of crop, disease incidence is less, grains are healthy and yield is higher. It also maintains fertility of the soil.

Question What kind of soil is suited for maize cultivation?
  The crop requires loam soil with good aeration for proper growth of the plants, which should be coupled with good drainage system. What ever is the soil, if drainage is not proper than the crop will suffer a lot.

Question What is the proper method of field preparation for maize cultivation?
  Maize is grown in Kharif, Rabi and spring seasons. Under irrigated conditions this can be grown in Rabi and summer season. Field can be prepared by two ploughing followed by leveling. Field should not have coarse soil and proper moisture in the soil is necessary for good germination.


OKRA
Question What kind of Okra quality is most preferred in the market?
 

Okra fruits having uniform dark green, tender, slender & smooth fruits with medium long (10-15 cm) & thin (5-5.5 cm girth) fruits.


Question What is the advantage of timely fruit harvest?
 

Timely harvest will give good quality fruits as tender, slender & smooth fruits which will fetch good price from the market. Also it will increase number of pickings and ultimately increase the total yield.


Question What are the advantages of balanced fertilizer?
 

There are lot of advantages to apply balance fertilizer in the soil as - good plant growth, increase pest & diseases tolerance, high yield, maintain the soil fertility and also it is very eco-friendly.


Question What is the most devastating disease of Okra? What measures to be taken to avoid this disease?
 

The most devastating disease of Okra is Yellow Vein Mosaic Virus (YVMV).

To prevent YVMV, Grow resistant varieties / F1 hybrids

To control whitefly vector Remove host plants like Cyda, …

To remove & destroy affected plants vigilantly Field should be away from inoculums source.


Question Which are the most important diseases and pests on Okra crop?
 

The most important diseases on Okra crop are:

Viral (YVMV & ELCV)

Fungal (Collar rot, Powdery mildew)

The most important pests on Okra crop are Whitefly, Jassids, Aphides, Fruit borer & Shoot Borer and Red Mites.


Question Okra plants are wilting (Collar Rot) and drying in patches, what is to be done?
 

Opening drainage channels should ensure proper drainage. The soil should be drenched with Thiophenyte Methyl 70% WP @ 2g/lit. of water.


Question What are the important varieties/hybrids of Okra available for cultivation?
 

Hybrids marketed by several Companies are available presently in the market. 

The important hybrids available in Okra are:

Trupti-443, Tanvi-595, Tanu-893, NOH-7100 & Super Lady Luck (Variety) High yield & good quality hybrids.


Question What is the optimum fertilizer dose?
 

Fertilizer application varies with soil fertility but the optimum fertilizer dose for hybrids is 160:100:100 NPK Kg/ha.


Question What is the optimum spacing followed in Okra?
 

The optimum spacing followed in Okra is Row to Row – 60cm & Plant to Plant – 30cm.


Question What is the optimum seed rate per hectare?
 

The Optimum seed rate for hybrids is 7.5 Kg/ha and 12-15 Kg/ha for OP varieties.


Question What is the optimum temperature requirement for germination?
 

The Optimum temperature requirement for germination is 25-300 C.


Question What type of soil is ideal for Okra?
 

Well drained loam and clay loam soil with PH 6-7.5 is ideal for the crop.


Question What are the important seasons for growing Okra Crop?
 

Okra is grown throughout the year however there are two important growing seasons viz, June – July & February - March sowing. Cool season is not good for optimum growth.



PADDY
Question which vareits will be suitable for seed production?
 

PHB-71, Proagro-6444, 6129,  Gorakhnath-509 and Loknath-510 are very popular Hybrid Rice Seeds in India.  If the farmers are need looking for very good best cooking quality, definitely Gorakhnath-509 should be the First choice.


Question Are there any basmati type hybrids in the market?
  Yes, Pusa RH-10 is the first superfine grained basmati type aromatic hybrid developed at IARI, Pusa, New Delhi and released for commercial cultivation. It gives 40% higher yield than Pusa Basmati-1 with comparable grain quality characteristics. Few private sector seed companies are also developing aromatic hybrids.

Question Is it possible to further increase the level of heterosis? If so, what are the approaches being followed?
  Yes, it is possible to enhance the level of heterosis from the presently attained 10-15% to 20-25%, over the yield of high yielding varieties.     The approaches to further enhance the magnitude of heterosis are (i) Use of improved and diverse parental lines, (ii) Two-line heterosis breeding and (iii) Development of indica/tropical japonica hybrids.  The last approach is gaining a lot of attention.

Question Are there any two-line hybrids available for cultivation in India?
  No, not yet. Several two line experimental hybrids are being evaluated and a lot of R & D work is in progress. Work on two-line hybrids is being done at DRR, Hyderabad, GBPUAT, Pantnagar and TNAU, Coimbatore; in addition to the very intensive work in the private sector.

Question What are three-line and two-line hybrids?
  Three-line hybrids are developed by utilizing three parental lines viz., CMS line (or A line), Maintainer line (or B line) and Restorer line (or R line). The three-line system utilizes cytoplasmic-genetic male sterility for large scale hybrid seed production.  The two-line hybrids are developed by utilizing two parental lines viz. Thermo-sensitive genic male sterile (TGMS) line used as female parent and any other rice genotype as the male parent. The TGMS lines are sterile at higher temperatures. The same lines are fertile at lower temperatures. Therefore, TGMS lines are used as female parent under higher temperatures to produce the hybrid seed.  TGMS lines are multiplied by growing them under lower temperature conditions. The two-line system utilizes Environment Sensitive Genic Male Sterility (EGMS) for hybrid seed production.

Question What is the cost of hybrid seed? Can it be reduced?
  Cost of hybrid rice seed per kilogram, at present, ranges from Rs. 150/- to Rs.200/- depending upon the product, agency which is producing and marketing. In general, cost of seed from public seed agencies is lower than that of private sector seed companies. With the current efforts to increase seed yield and optimize input costs, the seed cost can be further reduced. There is also a need to strengthen the public sector seed production system to create a healthy competition between public and private seed sectors.

Question Whether hybrids are always superior to varieties?
    Not in all the cases. Hybrids are not always superior to varieties. Not all the hybrids are heterotic. Hence, the experimental hybrids developed are critically evaluated along with check or standard varieties, in a series of trials to identify those hybrids which are superior to the presently cultivated varieties in respect of yield and other desired characteristics.

Question What about the cooking quality of hybrids?
  In most of the presently available hybrids, cooked rice is slightly sticky, as the CMS line used in these hybrids is IR 58025A, which has lower amylase content. However, this problem is being overcome by using other promising CMS lines having intermediate amylose content. Few such hybrids with non-sticky cooked rice, have already been developed and are being evaluated.

Question Can the millers differentiate between the produce from hybrids and OP varieties?
  No. The produce from hybrids is similar to the produce of the varieties. It is difficult to differentiate on visual basis alone, unless it is specifically mentioned.

Question Whether market price is the same for Paddy production from OP varieties and hybrids?
  At present, in Northern India, sale price is the same for paddy produced from hybrids and varieties. In fact, in certain cases, hybrids were offered slightly higher price because of presence of mild aroma in them.  Our (NBIL) hybrid (loknath-510) is fetching good price in the market due to long slender grains and good cooking quality.   However, in Southern India, produce from the hybrids is offered slightly lesser price by the millers, as there is preference for medium-slender grain in this region. In due course, with the availability of hybrids with medium-slender grains, this disparity in pricing may be reduced.

Question What are the potential areas for hybrid rice cultivation in India?
  Presently rice hybrids have been developed in India primarily for irrigated ecosystem. More than 20 million hectares (50% of total rice area) are plated under assured irrigation. Looking at the progress of hybrid rice research so far and current focus on development of hybrids with regional consumer preferences, and inbuilt resistance to major pests and diseases of the target area, it is likely that hybrids will occupy about 10 m. ha in irrigated and favorable rain fed lowland ecosystems during the next decade and half.

Question Which is the state having maximum area under hybrid rice?
  Uttar Pradesh is having maximum area (80,000 ha) under hybrid rice. The other hybrid rice growing states are Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, Punjab, Haryana, Maharashtra, Karnataka and Goa. Cultivation of hybrid rice is picking up now in some of the north-eastern states of India.

Question Which are the released hybrids available for cultivation?
  Though 43 hybrids have been released so far, not all of them are under large-scale cultivation.  On the other hand, several hybrids of rice (8-10) though not released by any Central or State government, have gained Substantial popularity and are in demand.     Hybrids Following is the list of NBIL Hybrid Rice Products Loknath-510   Ø Seed rate 4-6 kg/acre Ø  Seed soaked 16-18 hrs in water, after that stored in Jute bags (24 hrs) for germination Ø  A thin and sparse nursery is raised; seed rate of 15-20 gm/m2 of seed bed. Ø  Fertilizer use in the nursery: 1.5 kg urea, 900 gram DAP and 900 gram MOP/100 M2 Ø  One kg urea should be applied about 10 days before transplanting Ø  21-25 days old seedlings are suitable for transplanting;  spacing: 15 x 15cm, 20 x 15cm Ø  Nitrogen: 100-120 kg/ha (based on soil fertility) to be give in four splits Ø  Phosphorus & Potassium- 60:60 kg/ha. Potash to be give in two splits Ø  Planting of single seedling per hill having 3-5 tillers is recommended. Ø  Sowing time in Kharif: 15 May to 15 June; and Rabi: 15 November to 15 December Ø  Recommended regions for cultivation of this hybrid: UP, Bihar, Jharkhand, Punjab, Haryana, MP, Chhattisgarh, Gujarat and West Bengal

Question In which countries hybrid rice is grown on a large-scale ?
  China is the pioneer in development and large-scale use of hybrid rice. First commercial rice hybrids in China were released in 1976. More than 15 million hectares, out of the total rice area of 32 million hectares is cultivated with hybrid rice. During the last 28 years, more than 300 million tons of additional rice was produced in China, as a result of large scale adoption of hybrid rice, besides reducing the rice area from 36 to 32 million hectares. In addition to China, hybrid rice is cultivated in Vietnam, India, Philippines, Bangladesh, Indonesia and Egypt on a limited scale.

Question Why hybrid rice is needed for India?
  Rice is the staple food of India. Self sufficiency in rice production was achieved in India during 1980s, as a result of large scale adoption of semi-dwarf high yielding varieties and associated management technologies. During the last three decades, yield of the high yielding varieties has touched a plateau. To sustain food sufficiency, additional production of 1.5 million tons of rice is needed every year. To achieve this targeted production, among the limited options, hybrid rice is one of the most feasible and practically adoptable approach, as hybrids give 1.0-1.5 t/ha (15 to 20%) additional yield.

Question What is hybrid rice?
  Hybrid rice is first generation (F1) crop grown from the seed obtained by crossing two genetically different rice varieties. Hybrids combine desirable qualities from both the parents. Generally, hybrids are more vigorous and high yielding as compared to their parental lines as well as commonly grown high yielding varieties.


TOMATO
Question What is the optimum spacing followed in Tomato?
 

The optimum spacing followed in tomato Hybrids is 90 cm X 45 cm.


Question What is the optimum fertilizer requirement per hectare area?
 

For hybrids optimum fertilizer requirement is 200:100:100 kg/ha N:P:K and for varieties it is 120:80:150 kg/ha N:P:K


Question What is the best soil for tomato cultivation?
 

The tomato is grows on practically all soils from light sandy to heavy clay. Light soils are good for an early crop, while clay loam and silt-loam soils are well suited for heavy yields. Tomatoes do best in a soil that has a soil pH range between 6.0 to 7.0.


Question How to control damping off disease in nursery stage?
 

To avoid damping off disease treats the seed with Tricoderma @ 5-10 g/Kg seed or carbendazim 2g/Kg seed before sowing.


Question How to control insect vector and viruses in the nursery stage?
 

To cover the nursery bed with fine nylon net to escape the damage by virus transmitting insects.


Question How many days required for preparing a healthy seedling?
 

It may fluctuated by nursery practices, generally 25-30 days are required to prepared a healthy nursery for transplantation.


Question Which are the most important diseases and pests on tomato crop?
 

The most important diseases on tomato crop are:

Viral (Tomato leaf curl Virus, Tomato spotted wilt Virus)

Bacterial (Bacterial Wilt)

and Fungal (Fusarium wilt, Damping off, Powdery mildew, Leaf spot, Buck eye rot)

The most important pests on tomato crop are Fruit borer, Leaf minor, Root knot nematodes.


Question Why staking is necessary to grow tomato crop?
  Staking is necessary to get high marketable yield.  If the fruit touches the ground it may get rotten.  Staking also helps in crop management like irrigation, weeding, spraying and harvesting. 

Question What is the optimum spacing followed in Tomato?
  The optimum spacing followed in tomato.  Hybrids 90 cm X 45 cm

Question What is the optimum fertilizer requirement per hectare area?
  For hybrids optimum fertilizer requirement is180: 150: 120 kg / ha and for varieties it is120: 80: 150 kg / ha

Question What is the optimum seed requirement per hectare area?
 

For Hybrids optimum seed rate is 100-125 g/ha and for varieties it is 250 g/ha.


Question What are the important hybrids available in tomato?
 

Hybrids marketed by several Companies are available presently in the market. Nath bio-genes sells NTH-1144 & NTH-1222 in high firm/oval segment and NTH-671 in desi /round segment .Apart from hybrids company also sell OP Variety of NTH-670 and Damini in desi segment.


Question What are the major segments in tomato?
  High firm segment having long shelf life and long distance transportability.  The hybrids in this segment are generally resistant to ToLCV and Heat tolerance Desi round segment is liked for its sour taste and has heat tolerance

Question What is the important season for growing tomato?
 

June- July followed by October -November & Jan- Feb for growing tomato. Heat tolerance and tomato leaf curl virus resistance will be important for summer cultivation.